Transformers – Bridging fluctuations in Energy
An electric power transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits. They are used to convert voltages to low voltages and vice-versa in electric power applications.
What is a Transformer?
It is an electrical device which operates on the principles of electromagnetic induction to transfer electrical energy between two electric circuits while ensuring that there is no change in the frequency. AC or alternating current voltage is increased or decreased with the use of a transformer. While the size of transformers may vary, the purpose remains the same – electric power is transformed from one form to another. It is used to convert high voltages to low voltages so that it can be used at our homes and offices.
Why do Power Plants use High Voltages?
We need to understand why do power stations transmit electricity at such high voltages and not at the same voltage we use in our appliances at home as well as our office. The reason is simple. You waste less energy when the voltage of the electricity is higher and the current is lower.
Power plants send electricity at high voltages so that energy is saved. The energy requirements of various end users widely differ. The appliances you use at home and the machines that industrial plants use have a huge difference in energy conservation, so using transformers to lower the voltage according to the needs of the end user is the best solution.
How Transformers Work?
Let us find out how transformers work. The logic behind the working of transformers is based on the fact that a magnetic field or magnetic flux (a form of invisible magnetic force) is generated around the wire when an electric current flows through the wire. The magnitude of the electric current determines the magnetism or magnetic flux density. So, the strength of the magnetic field will depend on how big the current is.
An electric current is generated in the wire as a result of the fluctuation of the magnetic field around it. So, if we pass an electric current that is fluctuating through the first coil, and then place another coil of wire next to it, an electric current is induced in the second wire as well.
The current that passes through the first coil is called as primary current and the one that through the second wire is called secondary current. This process where the electric current passes from one coil to another without any direct connection is known as electromagnetic induction.
What are Step-Down Transformers?
Transformers work only with AC or alternating current where there is fluctuation in the electric current. They do not work with DC or direct current as the flow of current is steady here. When high voltages need to be reduced to lower levels, you need a step-down transformer.
Since the voltage depends on the coils, if the loops in the secondary coil are lesser than the loops in the primary coil, then the voltage will be lower than the primary coil. This is the concept behind step-down transformers; the loops in the secondary coil are lower than the primary coil thereby reducing the voltage.
What are Step-Up Transformers?
A step up power transformer works in exactly the same way as step-down transformers, only here low voltages are converted to higher voltages. The number of loops in the secondary coil is higher than the primary coil and hence the voltage is stepped up. The power in both the primary and secondary coil, however, is the same.
Energy efficient Transformer that work longer for your Business
When it comes to choosing a transformer for your business, it is best to get it from a manufacturer who has the expertise and will perform all the safety tests before installation. Electric Power Inc. has been manufacturing dry-type transformers which comply with CSA and UL standards and would prove to be a good choice.